vor 1 Stunde In rund 70 Metern Tiefe haben Helfer im spanischen Totalán die Leiche des verschollenen Julen geborgen. Anscheinend war der Junge "im. vor 1 Stunde Das Schacht-Drama in Spanien endet mit der schlimmsten Befürchtung: Julen ist tot. Wie schwierig die Bergung war, zeigt ein Video aus dem. Das Königreich Spanien ist eine parlamentarische Erbmonarchie in Europa mit dem Regierungssystem parlamentarische Demokratie. Staatsoberhaupt ist.
De norra delarna av Navarra och Baskien infogades i Frankrike. Under slutet av talet inleddes Spaniens era som turistland. Regeringen leds av regeringschefen spanska: Marinflyget har helikoptrar och Hawker Siddeley Harrier stridsflygplan.
I slutet av talet utvecklades Spaniens industrier. Produktionen uppgick till omkring 30 miljoner hektoliter.
Euric was also the first king to give written laws to the Visigoths. In the following reigns the Catholic kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Arianism of the Visigoths, and in the wars which ensued Alaric II and Amalaric lost their lives.
Athanagild , having risen against King Agila , called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast Liuvigild restored the political unity of the peninsula, subduing the Suebians, but the religious divisions of the country, reaching even the royal family, brought on a civil war.
Recared , son of Liuvigild and brother of St. Hermengild, added religious unity to the political unity achieved by his father, accepting the Catholic faith in the Third Council of Toledo The religious unity established by this council was the basis of that fusion of Goths with Hispano-Romans which produced the Spanish nation.
Sisebut and Suintila completed the expulsion of the Byzantines from Spain. Intermarriage between Visigoths and Hispano-Romans was prohibited, though in practice it could not be entirely prevented and was eventually legalised by Liuvigild.
Isidore was one of the most influential clerics and philosophers in the Middle Ages in Europe, and his theories were also vital to the conversion of the Visigothic Kingdom from an Arian domain to a Catholic one in the Councils of Toledo.
Isidore created the first western encyclopaedia which had a huge impact during the Middle Ages. In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula was conquered — by largely Moorish Muslim armies from North Africa.
These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate. Only a small area in the mountainous north-west of the peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion.
Legend has it that Count Julian , the governor of Ceuta, in revenge for the violation of his daughter, Florinda , by King Roderic , invited the Muslims and opened to them the gates of the peninsula.
Under Islamic law , Christians and Jews were given the subordinate status of dhimmi. This status permitted Christians and Jews to practice their religions as People of the Book but they were required to pay a special tax and had legal and social rights inferior to those of Muslims.
Conversion to Islam proceeded at an increasing pace. The Muslim community in the Iberian Peninsula was itself diverse and beset by social tensions.
The Berber people of North Africa, who had provided the bulk of the invading armies, clashed with the Arab leadership from the Middle East.
Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa.
Some important philosophers at the time were Averroes , Ibn Arabi and Maimonides. The Romanised cultures of the Iberian Peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, giving the region a distinctive culture.
In the 11th century, the Muslim holdings fractured into rival Taifa states Arab, Berber, and Slav ,  allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories.
This re-united Islamic state experienced more than a century of successes that partially reversed Christian gains.
The Reconquista Reconquest was the centuries-long period in which Christian rule was re-established over the Iberian Peninsula.
The Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the Battle of Covadonga won by Don Pelayo in and was concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula.
The Kingdom of Castile , formed from Leonese territory, was its successor as strongest kingdom. The kings and the nobility fought for power and influence in this period.
The example of the Roman emperors influenced the political objective of the Crown, while the nobles benefited from feudalism. Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers , Frankia and pushed out of the very southernmost region of France along the seacoast by the s.
Later, Frankish forces established Christian counties on the southern side of the Pyrenees. These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Navarre and Aragon.
The County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon entered in a dynastic union and gained territory and power in the Mediterranean. In Majorca was conquered, so was Valencia in The break-up of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative.
The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms.
In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Marinid dynasty of Morocco invaded and established some enclaves on the southern coast but failed in their attempt to re-establish North African rule in Iberia and were soon driven out.
From the mid 13th century, literature and philosophy started to flourish again in the Christian peninsular kingdoms, based on Roman and Gothic traditions.
An important philosopher from this time is Ramon Llull. Abraham Cresques was a prominent Jewish cartographer. Roman law and its institutions were the model for the legislators.
The king Alfonso X of Castile focused on strengthening this Roman and Gothic past, and also on linking the Iberian Christian kingdoms with the rest of medieval European Christendom.
Alfonso worked for being elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and published the Siete Partidas code. The Toledo School of Translators is the name that commonly describes the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic , Ancient Greek , and Ancient Hebrew.
The Islamic transmission of the classics is the main Islamic contributions to Medieval Europe. The Castilian language—more commonly known especially later in history and at present as "Spanish" after becoming the national language and lingua franca of Spain—evolved from Vulgar Latin , as did other Romance languages of Spain like the Catalan , Asturian and Galician languages, as well as other Romance languages in Latin Europe.
The Black Death of and devastated Spain. Having conquered these, they turned their arms against the Byzantines, who treacherously slew their leaders; but for this treachery the Spaniards, under Bernard of Rocafort and Berenguer of Entenca, exacted the terrible penalty celebrated in history as "The Catalan Vengeance" and moreover seized the Frankish Duchy of Athens Anti-Semitic animus accompanied the Reconquista.
There were mass killings in Aragon in the midth century, and 12, Jews were killed in Toledo. In , Christian mobs went from town to town throughout Castile and Aragon, killing an estimated 50, Jews.
According to Hasdai Crescas , about 70 Jewish communities were destroyed. The year also marked the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the New World , during a voyage funded by Isabella.
Large numbers of indigenous Americans died in battle against the Spaniards during the conquest,  while others died from various other causes.
Miscegenation was the rule between the native and the Spanish cultures and people. Juan Sebastian Elcano completed the first voyage around the world in human history, the Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation.
Augustine became a strategic defensive base for Spanish ships full of gold and silver sailing to Spain.
The Spanish once again encountered Islam, but this time in Southeast Asia and in order to incorporate the Philippines , Spanish expeditions organised from newly Christianised Mexico had invaded the Philippine territories of the Sultanate of Brunei.
The Spanish considered the war with the Muslims of Brunei and the Philippines , a repeat of the Reconquista. The unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdom of Spain remained a separate country socially, politically, legally, and in currency and language.
There were two big revolts against the new Habsburg monarch and the more authoritarian and imperial-style crown: Germana de Foix also finished with the revolt in the Mediterranean.
Through exploration and conquest or royal marriage alliances and inheritance, the Spanish Empire expanded to include vast areas in the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, Belgium , Luxembourg , and the Netherlands.
The first circumnavigation of the world was carried out in — It was the first empire on which it was said that the sun never set.
This was an Age of Discovery , with daring explorations by sea and by land, the opening-up of new trade routes across oceans, conquests and the beginnings of European colonialism.
Spanish explorers brought back precious metals , spices, luxuries, and previously unknown plants, and played a leading part in transforming the European understanding of the globe.
The expansion of the empire caused immense upheaval in the Americas as the collapse of societies and empires and new diseases from Europe devastated American indigenous populations.
The rise of humanism , the Counter-Reformation and new geographical discoveries and conquests raised issues that were addressed by the intellectual movement now known as the School of Salamanca , which developed the first modern theories of what are now known as international law and human rights.
Juan Luis Vives was another prominent humanist during this period. The Protestant Reformation dragged the kingdom ever more deeply into the mire of religiously charged wars.
The result was a country forced into ever expanding military efforts across Europe and in the Mediterranean. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally.
The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century. The War of the Spanish Succession was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent.
Long united only by the Crown, a true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king, Philip V , united the crowns of Castile and Aragon into a single state, abolishing many of the old regional privileges and laws.
The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire. The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy.
Bourbon reformers created formal disciplined militias across the Atlantic. In , Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic as a member of the first Coalition.
The subsequent War of the Pyrenees polarised the country in a reaction against the gallicised elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France in at the Peace of Basel in which Spain lost control over two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola.
In , a secret treaty between Napoleon and the unpopular prime minister led to a new declaration of war against Britain and Portugal.
Joseph Bonaparte was seen as a puppet monarch and was regarded with scorn by the Spanish. The 2 May revolt was one of many nationalist uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime.
Napoleon was forced to intervene personally, defeating several Spanish armies and forcing a British army to retreat.
These events foreshadowed the conflict between conservatives and liberals in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable.
In the s and s Anti-liberal forces known as Carlists fought against liberals in the Carlist Wars. Liberal forces won, but the conflict between progressive and conservative liberals ended in a weak early constitutional period.
After the Glorious Revolution of and the short-lived First Spanish Republic , a more stable monarchic period began characterised by the practice of turnismo the rotation of government control between progressive and conservative liberals within the Spanish government.
In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba. In and the Cuban War of Independence and the Philippine Revolution broke out and eventually the United States became involved.
The Spanish—American War was fought in the spring of and resulted in Spain losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa.
Although the period around the turn of the century was one of increasing prosperity, the 20th century brought little peace; Spain played a minor part in the scramble for Africa , with the colonisation of Western Sahara , Spanish Morocco and Equatorial Guinea.
The heavy losses suffered during the Rif War in Morocco brought discredit to the government and undermined the monarchy.
After a period of authoritarian rule under General Miguel Primo de Rivera — , the king determined to seek a solution to the political situation and establish the Constitution, the king led the municipal elections on 12 April These gave a resounding victory to the Republican-Socialist candidacies in large cities and provincial capitals, while the total number of councillors was mostly monarchical.
The organised demonstrations demanding the establishment of a democratic republic led the king to leave the country and the proclamation of the same on 14 April of that same year.
During the Second Republic there was a great political and social upheaval, marked by a sharp radicalisation of the left and the right.
The moderate leaders were boycotted and each party intended to create a Spain to suit them. During the first two years, governed a coalition of republican and socialist parties.
In the elections held in the right triumphed and in , the left. On the other hand, it is also during the Second Republic when important reforms are initiated to modernise the country — democratic constitution, agrarian reform, restructuring of the army, first Statutes of Autonomy Spain was divided into two zones: The situation led to a Civil War , in which the general Francisco Franco was sworn in as the supreme leader of the insurgents.
The Spanish Civil War broke out in For three years the Nationalist forces led by General Francisco Franco and supported by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy fought the Republican side, which was supported by the Soviet Union , Mexico and International Brigades but it was not supported by the Western powers due to the British-led policy of Non-Intervention.
The civil war was viciously fought and there were many atrocities committed by all sides. The war claimed the lives of over , people and caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country.
The state as established under Franco was nominally neutral in the Second World War, although sympathetic to the Axis.
This changed in , during the Cold War period, when it became strategically important for the US to establish a military presence on the Iberian Peninsula as a counter to any possible move by the Soviet Union into the Mediterranean basin.
In the s, Spain registered an unprecedented rate of economic growth which was propelled by industrialisation , a mass internal migration from rural areas to Madrid , Barcelona and the Basque Country and the creation of a mass tourism industry.
With the approval of the new Spanish Constitution of and the restoration of democracy , the State devolved much authority to the regions and created an internal organisation based on autonomous communities.
In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism has coexisted with a radical nationalist movement led by the armed terrorist organisation ETA.
On 23 February , rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military-backed government.
King Juan Carlos took personal command of the military and successfully ordered the coup plotters, via national television, to surrender. During the s the democratic restoration made possible a growing open society.
On 1 January , Spain fully adopted the euro , and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early s. However, well-publicised concerns issued by many economic commentators at the height of the boom warned that extraordinary property prices and a high foreign trade deficit were likely to lead to a painful economic collapse.
Bush in the Iraq War , and a strong movement against war rose in Spanish society. On 11 March a local Islamist terrorist group inspired by Al-Qaeda carried out the largest terrorist attack in Spanish history when they killed people and wounded more than 1, others by bombing commuter trains in Madrid.
Because of the proximity of the election , the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the incident.
Decentralisation was supported with much resistance of Constitutional Court and conservative opposition, so did gender politics like quotas or the law against gender violence.
Government talks with ETA happened, and the group announced its permanent cease of violence in Catalan independentism was also on rise.
A Catalan independence referendum was held on 1 October and then, on 27 October, the Catalan parliament voted to unilaterally declare independence from Spain to form a Catalan Republic   on the day the Spanish Senate was discussing approving direct rule over Catalonia as called for by the Spanish Prime Minister.
On 1 June the Congress of Deputies passed a motion of no-confidence against Rajoy and replaced him with the PSOE leader Pedro Sanchez , thus bringing socialists back to power after 7 years.
Mount Teide Tenerife is the highest mountain peak in Spain and is the third largest volcano in the world from its base.
Spain is a transcontinental country , having territory in both Europe and Africa. On the northeast, along the Pyrenees mountain range, it is bordered by France and the Principality of Andorra.
Mainland Spain is a mountainous country, dominated by high plateaus and mountain chains. The Meseta Central often translated as "Inner Plateau" is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain.
Alluvial plains are found along the coast, the largest of which is that of the Guadalquivir in Andalusia. Three main climatic zones can be separated, according to geographical situation and orographic conditions: Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands average above The fauna presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Africa and Eurasia , and the great diversity of habitats and biotopes , the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions.
The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the relief, the climate and latitude.
Spain includes different phytogeographic regions, each with its own floristic characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, biotic factors.
The Spanish Constitution of is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. The constitutional history of Spain dates back to the constitution of As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities and two autonomous cities with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation.
The constitution also specifies that Spain has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish. The Spanish administration approved the Gender Equality Act in aimed at furthering equality between genders in Spanish political and economic life.
Spain is a constitutional monarchy , with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament , the Cortes Generales General Courts.
The legislative branch is made up of the Congress of Deputies Congreso de los Diputados with members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate Senado with seats of which are directly elected by popular vote, using a limited voting method, and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms.
Health and education systems among others are managed by the Spanish communities, and in addition, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral provisions.
The Spanish Constitution of "protect all Spaniards and all the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions".
According to Amnesty International AI , government investigations of alleged police abuses are often lengthy and punishments were light.
Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT community. The Spanish State is integrated by 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both groups being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country.
Autonomous communities are integrated by provinces, of which there are 50 in total, and in turn, provinces are integrated by municipalities.
In Catalonia, two additional divisions exist, the comarques sing. The concept of a comarca exists in all autonomous communities, however, unlike Catalonia, these are merely historical or geographical subdivisions.
They were created after the current constitution came into effect in in recognition of the right to self-government of the " nationalities and regions of Spain ".
This territorial organisation, based on devolution , is literally known in Spain as the "State of Autonomies". The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy.
The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution.
Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as nationalities , were granted self-government through a rapid process.
Andalusia also took that denomination in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country.
Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy have also taken that denomination in accordance to their historical and modern identities, such as the Valencian Community,  the Canary Islands,  the Balearic Islands,  and Aragon.
The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and regional governments.
The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical.
Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Aside of fiscal autonomy, the nationalities —Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities, among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the parliament and call for elections at any time.
In addition, the Basque Country, Catalonia and Navarre have police corps of their own: Nonetheless, recent amendments to existing Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have reduced the asymmetry between the powers originally granted to the nationalities and the rest of the regions.
Finally, along with the 17 autonomous communities, two autonomous cities are also part of the State of Autonomies and are first-order territorial divisions: These are two exclaves located in the northern African coast.
Autonomous communities are subdivided into provinces , which served as their territorial building blocks. In turn, provinces are integrated by municipalities.
The existence of both the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves.
Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State.
The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the territorial division by Javier de Burgos , and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces.
The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre are the only communities that are integrated by a single province, which is coextensive with the community itself.
In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community.
As a member of NATO since , Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities. Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to co-ordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms.
Spain has maintained its special relations with Hispanic America and the Philippines. Its policy emphasises the concept of an Ibero-American community, essentially the renewal of the concept of " Hispanidad " or " Hispanismo " , [ citation needed ] as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America through language, commerce, history and culture.
Spain claims Gibraltar , a 6-square-kilometre 2. Then a Spanish town, it was conquered by an Anglo-Dutch force in during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of Archduke Charles , pretender to the Spanish throne.
The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in by the Treaty of Utrecht , in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown  stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first.
Since the s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty.
The Spanish claim makes a distinction between the isthmus that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Rock and city of Gibraltar on the other.
While the Rock and city were ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is illegal and against the principles of International Law ".
Another claim by Spain is about the Savage Islands , part of Portugal. In clash with the Portuguese position, Spain claims that they are rocks rather than islands, and therefore Spain does not accept any extension of the Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone nautical miles generated by the islands, while acknowledging the Selvagens having territorial waters 12 nautical miles.
On 5 July , Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views. Spain claims the sovereignty over the Perejil Island , a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar.
Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco. It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island.
The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty. Besides the Perejil Island, the Spanish-held territories claimed by other countries are two: Portugal stance has been the territory being de iure Portuguese territory and de facto Spanish.
The Spanish Armed Forces are divided into three branches: Since , CO2 emissions have risen notably, not reaching the reduction emissions promised in the Kyoto Protocol for fighting climate change.
In the period — more than half of the years have been qualified as dry or very dry. Spain is the country in Europe more exposed to climate change effects, according to Al Gore.
Electricity from renewable sources in Spain represented The country has a very large wind power capability built up over many years and is one of the world leaders in wind power generation.
Spain also positioned itself as a European leader in Solar power, by — the country was second only to Germany in installed capacity.
Unemployment stood at By the mids the economy had recommenced the growth that had been disrupted by the global recession of the early s.
With the government budget in balance and inflation under control Spain was admitted into the Eurozone in Since the s some Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America.
Spain is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the United States. Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia, especially China and India.
The reason for this early expansion is the booming interest towards Spanish language and culture in Asia and Africa and a corporate culture that learned to take risks in unstable markets.
The automotive industry is one of the largest employers in the country. In Spain was the 8th largest automobile producer country in the world and the 2nd largest car manufacturer in Europe after Germany.
By , the automotive industry was generating 8. Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners. They included the humid regions of the north and the northwest, as well as vast arid zones that had not been irrigated.
More than half of the irrigated area was planted in corn , fruit trees , and vegetables. Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes, cotton, sugar beets , potatoes, legumes , olive trees , mangos, strawberries , tomatoes, and fodder grasses.
Because of the changed diet of an increasingly affluent population, there was a notable increase in the consumption of livestock, poultry, and dairy products.
Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain became a net importer of grains. Fresh vegetables and fruits produced through intensive irrigation farming also became important export commodities, as did sunflower seed oil that was produced to compete with the more expensive olive oils in oversupply throughout the Mediterranean countries of the European Community.
In , Spain was the second most visited country in the world, recording 82 million tourists which marked the fifth consecutive year of record-beating numbers.
Castile and Leon is the Spanish leader in rural tourism linked to its environmental and architectural heritage. Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain are nuclear 8 operative reactors , gas , coal , and oil.
Spain has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and the second-most extensive in the world after China.
Although obrajes in Brihuega were small-scale enterprises, quite a number of them in Puebla employed up to workers. Supplies of wool, water for fulling mills, and labor free indigenous, incarcerated Indians, black slaves were available.
In , Puebla became an intendancy as part of the new administrative structuring of the Bourbon Reforms. Mexico City dominated the Valley of Mexico, but the valley continued to have dense indigenous populations challenged by growing, increasingly dense Spanish settlement.
The Valley of Mexico had many former Indian city-states that became Indian towns in the colonial era. These towns continued to be ruled by indigenous elites under the Spanish crown, with an indigenous governor and a town councils.
The capital was provisioned by the indigenous towns, and its labor was available for enterprises that ultimately created a colonial economy.
The gradual drying up of the central lake system created more dry land for farming, but the sixteenth-century population declines allowed Spaniards to expand their acquisition of land.
One region that retained strong Indian land holding was the southern fresh water area, with important suppliers of fresh produce to the capital.
The area was characterized by intensely cultivated chinampas, man-made extensions of cultivable land into the lake system.
These chinampa towns retained a strong indigenous character, and Indians continued to hold the majority of that land, despite its closeness to the Spanish capital.
A key example is Xochimilco. Texcoco in the pre-conquest period was one of the three members of the Aztec Triple Alliance and the cultural center of the empire.
It fell on hard times in the colonial period as an economic backwater. Spaniards with any ambition or connections would be lured by the closeness of Mexico City, so that the Spanish presence was minimal and marginal.
Tlaxcala, the major ally of the Spanish against the Aztecs of Tenochtitlan, also became something of a backwater, but like Puebla it did not come under the control of Spanish encomenderos.
No elite Spaniards settled there, but like many other Indian towns in the Valley of Mexico, it had an assortment of small-scale merchants, artisans, farmers and ranchers, and textile workshops obrajes.
The motor of the Spanish colonial economy was the extraction of silver. The region farther north of the main mining zones attracted few Spanish settlers.
Where there were settled indigenous populations , such as in the present-day state of New Mexico and in coastal regions of Baja and Alta California , indigenous culture retained considerable integrity.
The region did not have indigenous populations that practiced subsistence agriculture. From diverse cultural backgrounds and with no sustaining indigenous communities, these indios were quickly hispanized, but largely remained at the bottom of the economic hierarchy.
Land owners lent workers money, which could be seen as a perpetual indebtedness, but it can be seen not as coercing Indians to stay but a way estate owners sweetened their terms of employment, beyond their basic wage labor.
However, where labor was more abundant or market conditions depressed, estate owners paid lower wages.
As with hacendados, renters produced for the commercial market. Areas of northern Mexico were incorporated into the United States in the mid-nineteenth century, following Texas independence and the Mexican—American War —48 and generally known as the "Spanish Borderlands.
The Presidios forts , pueblos civilian towns and the misiones missions were the three major agencies employed by the Spanish crown to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial holdings in these territories.
The town of Albuquerque present day Albuquerque, New Mexico was founded in From , Jesuits established eighteen missions throughout the Baja California Peninsula.
Between and several missions were founded in Trinidad , but only four survived as Amerindian villages throughout the 18th century. In , explorers and missionaries visited the interior of Texas and came upon a river and Amerindian settlement on June 13, the feast day of St.
Anthony , and named the location and river San Antonio in his honor. By naming the region "New Mexico," the Spanish likely hoped to incorporate a region as rich as Mexico had proven to be.
However, while New Mexico had a settled indigenous population, there were no silver mines, little arable land, and few other resources to exploit that would merit large scale colonization.
In , Pedro de Peralta , a later governor of the Province of New Mexico , established the settlement of Santa Fe near the southern end of the Sangre de Cristo mountain range.
Missions were established to convert the locals, and manage the agricultural industry. After the return of the Spanish in , the final resolution included a marked reduction of Spanish efforts to eradicate native culture and religion, the issuing of substantial communal land grants to each Pueblo, and a public defender of their rights and for their legal cases in Spanish courts.
In the Province came under the new Provincias Internas jurisdiction. In the late 18th century the Spanish land grant encouraged the settlement by individuals of large land parcels outside Mission and Pueblo boundaries, many of which became ranchos.
Not until the eighteenth century was California of much interest to the Spanish crown, since it had no known rich mineral deposits or indigenous populations sufficiently organized to render tribute and do labor for Spaniards.
The discovery of huge deposits of gold in the Sierra Nevada foothills did not come until after the U. By the middle of the s, the Catholic order of Jesuits had established a number of missions on the Baja lower California peninsula.
The method used to "occupy and fortify" was the established Spanish colonial system: As a result, the colonial population of California remained small, widely scattered and near the coast.
The crown created two new provincial governments from the former Las Californias in ; the southern peninsula became Baja California, and the ill-defined northern mainland frontier area became Alta California.
Once missions and protective presidios were established in an area, large land grants encouraged settlement and establishment of California ranchos.
The Spanish system of land grants was not very successful, however, because the grants were merely royal concessions—not actual land ownership.
Under later Mexican rule, land grants conveyed ownership, and were more successful at promoting settlement. Rancho activities centered on cattle-raising; many grantees emulated the Dons of Spain , with cattle, horses and sheep the source of wealth.
Native-born descendants of the resident Spanish-heritage rancho grantees, soldiers, servants, merchants, craftsmen and others became the Californios.
Many of the less-affluent men took native wives, and many daughters married later English, French and American settlers. After the Mexican War of Independence and subsequent secularization "disestablishment" of the missions , Mexican land grant transactions increased the spread of the rancho system.
The land grants and ranchos established mapping and land-ownership patterns that are still recognizable in present-day California and New Mexico. A merchant group developed and expanded dramatically as trade flourished during the seventeenth century.
Blacks were an important component of Yucatecan society. The Maya community, the cah , was the means by which indigenous cultural integrity was maintained.
In the economic sphere, unlike many other regions and ethnic groups in Mesoamerica, the Yucatec Maya did not have a pre-conquest network of regular markets to exchange different types of food and craft goods.
Perhaps because the peninsula was uniform in its ecosystem local niche production did not develop. Access to water was a limiting factor on agriculture, with the limestone escarpment giving way in water filled sinkholes cenotes , but rivers and streams were generally absent on the peninsula.
Individuals had rights to land so long as they cleared and tilled them and when the soil was exhausted, they repeated the process.
But confraternities also later pursued cattle ranching, as well as mule and horse breeding, depending on the local situation.
In —17 viceroy of New Spain organized a sufficient ships to expel the foreigners, where the crown subsequently built a fortress at Isla del Carmen.
In the nineteenth century, the enclave supplied guns to the rebellious Maya in the Caste War of Yucatan. Since Oaxaca was lacking in mineral deposits and it had an abundant sedentary indigenous population, its development was notable for the lack of European or mixed-race population, lack of large-scale Spanish haciendas, and the survival of indigenous communities.
These communities retained their land, indigenous languages, and distinct ethnic identities. Antequera now Oaxaca City was a Spanish settlement founded in , but the rest of Oaxaca consisted of indigenous towns.
The most important commodity for Oaxaca was cochineal red dye. The rich, color-fast red dye produced from insects, was harvested from nopal cacti.
Cochineal was a high-value, low-volume product that became the second-most valuable Mexican export after silver. Although it could be produced elsewhere in central and southern Mexico, its main region of production was Oaxaca.
For the indigenous in Oaxaca, cochineal was the only one "with which the [tributaries] maintain themselves and pay their debts" but it also had other advantages for them.
Although the repartimiento has historically been seen as an imposition on the indigenous, forcing them into economic relations they would rather have avoided and maintained by force,  recent work on eighteenth-century Oaxaca analyzes the nexus of crown officials the alcaldes mayores and Spanish merchants, and indigenous via the repartimiento.
Indigenous elites were an integral part of the repartimiento, often being recipients of large extensions of credit.
As authority figures in their community, they were in a good position to collect on the debt, the most risky part of the business from the Spanish point of view.
The Isthmus of Tehuantepec region of Oaxaca was important for its short transit between the Gulf Coast and the Pacific, facilitating both overland and sea trade.
The province of Tehuantepec was the Pacific side of the isthmus and the headwaters of the Coatzacoalcos River.
Gold mining was an early draw for Spaniards, who directed indigenous labor to its extraction, but did not continue beyond the mid-sixteenth century.
Over the long run, ranching and commerce were the most important economic activities, with the settlement of Tehuantepec becoming the hub.
The second period of approximately a century — saw the decline of the indigenous entailed estate cacicazgo and indigenous political power and development of the colonial economy and imposition of Spanish political and religious structures.
The final period is the maturation of these structures — The rebellion can be a dividing line between the two later periods. The Villa of Tehuantepec , the largest settlement on the isthmus, was an important prehispanic Zapotec trade and religious center, which was not under the jurisdiction of the Aztecs.
The Marquesado continued to have major private holdings in the province. The Villa of Tehuantepec became a center of Spanish and mixed-race settlement, crown administration, and trade.
However important the Marquesado and the Dominican enterprises were, there were also other economic players in the region, including individual Spaniards as well as existing indigenous communities.
Ranching emerged as the dominant rural enterprise in most of Tehuantepec with a ranching boom in the period — Since Tehuantepec experienced significant indigenous population loss in the sixteenth century conforming to the general pattern, ranching made possible for Spaniards to thrive in Tehuantepec because ranching was not dependent on significant amounts of indigenous labor.
Cattle ranching for meat, tallow, and leather were also important. Tallow for candles used in churches and residences and leather used in a variety of ways saddles, other tack, boots, furniture, machinery were significant items in the larger colonial economy, finding markets well beyond Tehuantepec.
Since the Marquesado operated as an integrated enterprise, draft animals were used in other holdings for transport, agriculture, and mining in Oaxaca, Morelos, Toluca, and Mexico City as well as sold.
Raised in Tehuantepec, the animals were driven to other Marquesado holdings for use and distribution. Although colonial population decline affected the indigenous in Tehuantepec, their communities remained important in the colonial era and remain distinctly Indian to the current era.
There were differences in the three distinct linguistic and ethnic groups in colonial Tehuantepec, the Zapotec , the Zoque , and the Huave. The Zapotecs concluded an alliance with the Spaniards at contact, and they had already expanded their territory into Zoque and Huave regions.
Under Spanish rule, the Zapotecs not only survived, but flourished, unlike the other two. They continued to pursue agriculture, some of it irrigated, which was not disrupted by the growing ranching economy.
Zapotec elites engaged in the market economy early on, which undermined to an extent the bonds between commoners and elites who colluded with the Spanish.
In contrast to the Zapotecs, the Zoque generally declined as a group during the ranching boom, with interloping animals eating their maize crops.
Zoque response was to take up being vaqueros themselves. They had access to the trade to Guatemala. Of the three indigenous groups, the Huave were the most isolated from the Spanish ranching economy and labor demands.
They traded dried shrimp and fish, as well as purple dye from shells to Oaxaca, likely acquiring foodstuffs that they were unable to cultivate themselves.
Not well documented is the number of African slaves and their descendants, who were artisans in urban areas and did hard manual labor in rural areas.
In general, Tehuantepec was not a site of major historical events, but in —61, there was a significant rebellion stemming from increased repartimiento Spanish demands.
Spanish settlers brought to the American continent smallpox , measles , typhoid fever , and other infectious diseases.
Most of the Spanish settlers had developed an immunity to these diseases from childhood, but the indigenous peoples lacked the needed antibodies since these diseases were totally alien to the native population at the time.
There were at least three separate, major epidemics that decimated the population: In the course of the 16th century, the native population in Mexico went from an estimated pre-Columbian population of 8 to 20 million to less than two million.
Therefore, at the start of the 17th century, continental New Spain was a depopulated country with abandoned cities and maize fields.
These diseases would not affect the Philippines in the same way because the diseases were already present in the country; Pre-Hispanic Filipinos had contact with other foreign nationalities before the arrival of the Spaniards.
Following the Spanish conquests, new ethnic groups were created, primary among them the Mestizo. The Mestizo population emerged as a result of the Spanish colonizers having children with indigenous women, both within and outside of wedlock, which brought about the mixing of both cultures.
See Hyperdescent and Hypodescent. Because of this, the term "Mestizo" was associated with illegitimacy. Mestizos do not appear in large numbers in official censuses until the second half of the 17th century, when a sizable and stable community of mixed-race people with no claims to being either Indian or Spanish appeared, although, of course, a large population of biological Mestizos had already existed for over a century in Mexico.
The Spanish conquest also brought the migration of people of African descent to the many regions of the Viceroyalty. Some came as free blacks , but vast majority came because of the introduction of African slavery.
As the native population was decimated by epidemics and forced labor, black slaves were imported. Mixes with Europeans and indigenous peoples also occurred, resulting in the creation of new racial categories such as Mulattos and Zambos to account for these offspring.
As with the term Mestizo, these other terms were associated with illegitimacy, since a majority—though not all—of these people were born outside of wedlock.
Eventually a caste system was created to describe the various mixes and to assign them a different social level. In theory, each different mix had a name and different sets of privileges or prohibitions.
In reality, mixed-race people were able to negotiate various racial and ethnic identities often several ones at different points in their lives depending on the family ties and wealth they had.
In its general outline, the system reflected reality. The upper echelons of government were staffed by Spaniards born in Spain peninsulares , the middle and lower levels of government and other higher paying jobs were held by Criollos Criollos were Spaniards born in the Americas, or—as permitted by the casta system—Spaniards with some Amerindian or even other ancestry.
Mestizos and Mulattos held artisanal positions and unskilled laborers were either more mixed people, such as Zambos , recently freed slaves or Natives who had left their communities and settled in areas with large Hispanic populations.
This rough sketch must be complicated by the fact that not only did exceptions exist, but also that all these "racial" categories represented social conventions, as demonstrated by the fact that many persons were assigned a caste based on hyperdescent or hypodescent.
Even if mixes were common, the white population tried to keep their higher status, and were largely successful in doing so.
With Mexican and Central American independence, the caste system and slavery were theoretically abolished. However, it can be argued that the Criollos simply replaced the Peninsulares in terms of power.
In modern Mexico, "Mestizo" has become more a cultural term, since Indigenous people who abandon their traditional ways are considered Mestizos.
Also, most Afro-Mexicans prefer to be considered Mestizo, since they identify closely with this group. While different intendencies would perform censuses to get a detailed insight in regards to its inhabitants namely occupation, number of persons per household, ethnicity etc.
The census is also known as the "Revillagigedo census" because its creation was ordered by the Count of the same name.
Each author gives different estimations for the total population, ranging from 3,, to 6,,   more recent data suggests that the actual population of New Spain in was closer to 5 or 5.
It is also for these reasons that the number of Indigenous Mexicans presents the greater variation range between publications, as in cases their numbers in a given location were estimated rather than counted, leading to possible overestimations in some provinces and possible underestimations in others.
Some of the most important early buildings in New Spain were churches and other religious architecture.
Civil architecture included the viceregal palace, now the National Palace, and the Mexico City town council cabildo , both located on the main square in the capital.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Plus Ultra "Further Beyond". Marcha Real "Royal March". Maximum extension of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, with the incorporation of Louisiana - In light green the territory not controlled effectively, but claimed as part of the Viceroyalty.
History of Roman Catholicism in Mexico. Spanish colonization of the Americas. History of the Philippines. Spanish treasure fleet and Manila galleon.
Economic history of Mexico. Royal Audiencia of Mexico. History of Mexico City. Mexican art and Mexican architecture. For a complete chart, see Hamnett , p.
University of Texas Press Mundy, The Mapping of New Spain: University of Chicago Press University of Chicago Press , p. The Northward Advance of New Spain, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press Prentice Hall , Gradie, The Tepehuan Revolt of University of Utah Press Farriss, Crown and Clergy in Colonial Mexico, The Crisis of Ecclesiastical Privilege.
A History of Politicoecclesiastical Relations. University of North Carolina Press University of New Mexico Press University of Florida Press Fitzroy Dearborn , p.
University of Chicago Press , pp. Prentice Hall , pp. This is the definitive study of the tobacco monopoly.
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